The second chapter of the book ‘Biological bases of behaviour’ includes the items briefly from the stream of Bio-psychology or Physiological Psychology. “Psychology is the science and the properly trained psychologist is a scientist, or at least a practitioner who uses scientific methods and information resulting from scientific investigations”. The questionnaire is not flexible because there is no possibility of changing the questions to suit the situation. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. 3. Different Branches of Psychology are as follows: Psychology studies and explains the behaviour of entire living organisms. This is called disguised observation. He will be able to report the smallest possible elements of awareness. Psychology is the science of mind and behavior.Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.It is an academic discipline of immense scope. • Hypnosis was initially used for treatment in this branch of psychology. a. What is soul? Naturalistic observation method which is the systematic study of behaviour in natural settings, can be used to study the behaviour of animals which are in wild or in captivity. Health psychologists focus on health maintenance and promotion of behaviour related to good health such as exercise, health habits and discouraging unhealthy behaviours like smoking, drug abuse and alcoholism. This method of data collection is especially popular when large scale enquiries have to be made. Another way of classifying observation is that of participant and non-participant types of observation. Either past behaviours or future intensions, do not complicate it. It consists of a number of questions printed in a definite order which the respondents have to answer. When the sample is large, the questionnaire method is economical. Structured interview involves the use of predetermined questions and standardized techniques of recording. The domain of psychology has, in course of time, emerged as one of the important disciplines while widening its scopes and being applicable to different fields of human endeavors, such as, employment, industries, education, personality development and being one of its popular branches, to the treatment of mental and emotional problems. It deals with the assessment and intervention of abnormal behaviour. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The relation of one question to another should be readily apparent to the respondent. Our behaviour is not only the result of just our personality and predisposition. These branches are divided according to the major schools of psychology. 3. It is a scientific study because to study behaviour and mental processes, the psychologists use the scientific methods for understanding more precisely and accurately. Meaning and Definitions of Psychology 2. Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. Because experiences are unique, they cannot be repeated and so introspection cannot be repeated. 1. The results are usually expressed in terms of numbers which makes it convenient for comparison of performance and analysis. Science is the body of systematized knowledge that is gathered by carefully observing and measuring events. A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order, one set of forms to which the respondents are supposed to answer unaided, by writing the answers in the space provided for the purpose. Structured observation is useful in descriptive studies, while unstructured observation is useful in exploratory studies. Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! Child Psychology. The questionnaire is sent to the person concerned with a request to answer the questions. 4. It is systematically planned, recorded and is subjected to check and control its validity and reliability. Psychology is “the science of behaviour” (taking into account the human as well as animal behaviour). When observations are carried out under standardized conditions they should be observed with a careful understanding of the units, that is the style of recording observed information and the selection of dependent or related data of observation concerned, then it is called structured observation. He can control this variable according to the requirements of the experiment. (ii) It would not include subconscious and unconscious activities of mind. A random sample of entire population is not always necessary or even desirable. The names of psychologists like Edward Tolman and Jean Piaget are associated with the propagation of the ideas of this school of thought. Education is nothing but providing guidance to the growing child. Psychology is a scientific study that relies on empiricism, the use of experimentation, evidence and observations to draw conclusions. Thus we can say that in organizational and industrial sectors not only the psychological effects of working attitude of the employees are considered but also the physical aspects are given importance to make workers feel healthy. Psych 101 - Introduction to Psychology - Lecture 1 … Sometimes, unforeseen factors may interfere with observation. Certain types of respondents may not be available for interviews. This is used where ever it is not possible to directly contact the required person to be interviewed. This method involves in asking large numbers of individuals to complete the given questionnaires or through interviews by interviewing people directly about their experiences, attitudes or opinions. Highly dependable cause-effect relationships can be established. He also has a freedom while recording responses, whether to include some aspects and exclude others. The relevance of these scientific methods extends beyond testing and evaluating theories and hypotheses in psychology. 1. Most standard modern definitions of psychology describe its essence as the science of behavior. The behaviour that occurs will be co-related with the stimulus. 9. How can it be studied? In terms of the study of consciousness: The description and explanation of the states of consciousness is the task of Psychology which is usually done by the instrument introspection—process of looking within. Here the interviewer simply encourages the respondent to talk about the given topic with a minimum of direct questioning. Psychology can be broadly classified into 16 branches ; Tell anyone you’re considering studying psychology and the inevitable response is “Are you psychoanalysing me right now?”. Aerospace Psychology. Different branches of psychology have emerged to help study different topics of interest within the field. Complete control of the extraneous variables is not possible. To establish a clear-cut relationship between a stimulus and response, all other possible influences must be eliminated. This method is independent of the subject willingness to respond and so does not require active participation of the subject. The psychology branches are thick and bushy, with a range of specific focuses and applications that are increasingly relevant to the modern world, with various potential careers. The outcome of the experimental psychology is cognitive psychology which focuses on studying higher mental processes including thinking, knowing, reasoning, judging and decision-making. This may lead to lack of comparability and also difficult in analyzing the responses. In personal interviews an interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face contact with the person being interviewed. In introspection, the subject is taught to achieve a state of “focused attention” in which he can closely observe his own conscious experiences. But when observation takes place without these consideration it is called unstructured observation. 2. More information about the subject can be obtained in greater depth. It is difficult to know whether the sample is really representative. There are different types of psychology, such as cognitive, forensic, social, and developmental psychology. Specializations and branches of psychology The following broad branches of psychology will elucidate the overall nature and scope of psychology: Clinical psychology – the study, assessment, prevention, coping, and treatment of mental health issues and disorders such as depression & schizophrenia ( example ) Which will help the students to prepare and know briefly about what exactly psychology meants. 1.2 SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY From the definition of psychology now it might be clear to you that psychology addresses a variety of issues related to mental and behavioural functioning of an individual. 1. Because of this, the method is especially suitable to subjects which are not capable of giving verbal reports of their thoughts and feelings. 3. Research psychologists experiment and gather observations to improve understanding … Abnormal psychology is one of the most basic forms of psychology study, and is taught in Law and Human … Branches of Psychology Someof theimportant branchesof psychology for our courseare: Developmental psychology Personality psychology Social psychology Industrial /organizational psychology Clinical and counseling psychology Experimental and … The first few questions are particularly important, because they are likely to influence the attitude of the respondent. The scope of Educational Psychology includes the study of the nature of intelligence as well as its measurement. It also studies the individual traits that differentiate the behaviour of one person from that of another person. Psychology Ppt Dana Tuazon. If experiment has to be successful, the subjects (patients/clients) must be selected carefully. Psychology offers solutions that are useful … They make use of tests to measure aptitudes, interests and personality characteristics. nature of psychology Educ_Louie Tanaka. Psychologists use naturalistic observation whenever people happen to be at home, on playgrounds, in classrooms and offices. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. In his book An Outline of Psychology, “Psychology is a science which aims to give us better understanding and control of the behaviour of the organism as a whole”. The word Psychology has its origin from two Greek words ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’, ‘psyche’ means ‘soul’ and ‘logos’ means ‘study’. Social psychology is a branch of general psychology that has great importance in the modern world. Thus the goal of introspection is to learn about the basic building blocks of experience and the principles by which they combine to give us our everyday consciousness. There are the different methods used in psychology to study the behaviour. 4. As case studies focus on individuals, so we cannot generalize about human behaviour. Introspection or self-observation may be considered as a old method but it is something we are doing almost constantly in our everyday life. by using scientific methods. CHAPTER I. TOS4. Here mechanical or precision instruments are used to aid accuracy and standardization. 5. First hand information can be collected about the subject’s background, economic and educational considerations. The other way of classifying observation is that of controlled and uncontrolled observations: It is that which takes place in natural setting. Personal interviews are popular but telephone interviews can also be conducted as well. Because the interviewer is present on the spot, the respondent may become overstimulated and give imaginary information just to make the interview more interesting. The information obtained under this method relates to current happenings. scientific psychology, concept, definition, scope and various branches of psychology. The experiment can be replicated by other researches and verified. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • Abnormal psychology is the study of certain behavioural abnormalities in a person's psyche/mind such as neuroses, psychoses and mental retardation. Commercial Psychology . The Nature of Psychology neda marie maramo. should be avoided. Large samples can be used and so the results can be made dependable and reliable. b. By learning more about these many branches of psychology, you can gain a greater understanding of the many topics that psychology tackles. Those who study Health Psychology are called health psychologists. The results obtained from introspection are subjective and so lack scientific validity. Psychology possesses a well-organized theory that is supported by relevant psychological laws & principles. PSYCHOLOGY. A random sample is one where every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. 3. A clinical psychologist is a licensed psychologist who specializes in abnormal psychology where he or she observes, identifies, and devises treatment suited to the needs of the emotional and/or behavioral disorders of the clients. They should be simple, easily understood and concrete. It focuses on a broad range of issues such as discrimination against women, the possibility of structural differences in the brain of men and women, the effect of hormones on behaviour, and the cause of violence against women, fear of success, outsmarting nature of women with respect to men in various accomplishments. Scope & Branches of Psychology Environmental Psychology - This is concerned with the study of interactionbetween physical environment and humanbehaviour. Experimental psychologists often do research in lab by frequently using animals as their experimental subjects. 3. Course Duration: Bachelor of Science [B.Sc] (Psychology) is 3 Years. This definition was also rejected on the grounds that: (i) It could not include the study of the consciousness of animals. This method is relatively time consuming. Generally, controlled observation takes place in various experiments which are carried out in labs under controlled conditions. Biopsychology: It analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings. Intelligence tests measure the intellectual capacity of an individual and achievement tests through light on achievement of student in various subjects they are studying. How can it be studied, etc. BSc Psychology Government Jobs, Private Jobs, Scope, Salary and Placements. 4. Sociology of Economy. Questions which are causing very much strain on the memory, personal questions and questions related to personal wealth, etc. These scientific methods reduce bias and errors in understanding various behavioural aspects. This refers to whether the questionnaire is ‘unstructured’ or ‘structured’. Methods. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Branches of psychology: Subcategories. They provide support and guidance relating to stress management, losing weight, smoke reduction, preventing drug and alcohol abuse. Content Guidelines 2. Thus the structured questionnaires are simple to administer and relatively inexpensive to analyze. Psychology is always evolving and new fields and branches continue to emerge. Thus it is not simply enough to describe behaviour. It is a method of data collection through which both qualitative as well as quantitative data can be collected by formulating a set of interrelated questions. Surveys are often repeated over long period of time in order to trace the shifts in public opinion. The first definition of the Psychology was the study of the soul: The earliest attempts at defining Psychology owe their origin to the most mysterious and philosophical concept, namely that of soul. 3. Applied Psychology. In this method we not only ask the subject to report his experiences but also gather information by direct observation of overt behaviour. Scope of Psychology: The field of psychology can be understood by various subfields of psychology making an attempt in meeting the goals of psychology. In order to construct a good comprehensive questionnaire, some points have to be kept in mind. 2. This branch helps to explain both consistency and change in a person’s behaviour over time, from birth till the end of life through the influence of parents, siblings, playmates, school, society and culture. Here, we look at the main branches of psychology. It studies the impact of noise,heat, humidity, pollution and crowding onhuman performance & also focuses on theimpact of physical environment onpsychological health. There are two general grouping of psychologists: research psychologists and applied psychologists. It includes criminal psychology, criminal anthropology, criminal sociology, criminal politics, prophylactic criminology, criminal psychiatry and penology 4. 6. Physiological functions and the structure of our body work together to influence our behaviour. 1. These investigations explain many incidents that would otherwise be difficult to understand. Interviewer bias as well as respondents bias may operate while gathering information. We are living in a fast-paced world these days. Animal Psychology. Scope of Psychology 3. The results are clear and straight forward. The experiments and observations which are made can be repeated and verified by others because of its objectivity, reliability, validity and predictability which are the characteristics of basic science. In clinical interviews concern is given to the feelings or motivations of individuals life experiences. This is the method of observation of the behaviour or the ability of the individual under controlled condition or fixed circumstances. It studies the role of motivation in sport, social aspects of sport and physiological issues like importance of training on muscle development, the coordination between eye and hand, the muscular coordination in track and field, swimming and gymnastics. So by adopting all these methods, psychology collects information about behaviour, which helps us to study the behaviour systematically. The branches of psychology primarily addressed in this topic article are those whose foundations and applications are especially pertinent to facilitate informed actions toward sustainable world development. Online psychology, traffic psychology, spiritual psychology, and aviation psychology are just a few different fields that have sprung up in recent years. It has its applied aspects in the form of various branches of applied psychology like industrial, legal, clinical, and educational psychology. 1. Privacy Policy3. In non-participant observation the observer detaches himself from the group that is being observed. We are not immune from societal and global pressures and tragedies, and cannot insulate from them. Respondents have adequate time to give well though-out answers. Once the experiment has been conducted, the results have to be summarized and a conclusion drawn. It gives in-depth information about the individual. The experimental method is most often used in laboratory. Introspection is a method of studying the consciousness in which the subjects report on their subjective experiences. The most modern and widely accepted definition of psychology even today, is the study of behaviour, both humans and animals. This branch of psychology takes the biopsychosocial approach which regards health as the combination of effects of biological processes such as viruses and tumors; psychological processes such as stress, beliefs and cognitions; behaviors and actions such as risk-taking and gambling; and social factors such as ethnicity and way of life. They cannot be verified and have to be accepted at face value. 2. Psychologists use many scientific methods for research purposes to understand various psychological issues more scientifically. INTRODUCTION. Here no attempt is made to use precautional instruments or methods. The changes observed in the dependent variable may be influenced by a number of factors. 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